Not really. The AD cmdlets rely on bits of .NET Framework that don't exist in Core, so they can't run on Linux. The older ADSI COM layer obviously isn't on Linux, either, so that wouldn't be an option.
In theory you could do implicit remoting, and just run the commands from a DC. That's actually kind of the big-picture vision: you don't install commands on every machine in the company. You just leave them where it makes sense, like on a DC or a jump server, and then remote to that place to run them.