Has anyone tried this yet, now that Microsoft has pushed alphas of PowerShell and updated versions of DSC for Linux? I can actually compile MOFs on Linux, but of course the built-in Windows resources like "Registry" don't exist on Linux – for obvious reasons.
Well... so, let's do some terminology. "The DSC resources that ship with the Windows OS" depends on the OS and version of WMF installed; you're probably best off just running Get-DscResource on a sample machine to see.
Is that what you meant?
Or, are you asking, "is there a way I can get modules for the Windows resources, on Linux, so that I can compile a for-Windows MOF on a Linux system?" In which case, no, there aren't. The Linux DSC package wasn't written by the PowerShell team, and the focus was on making it a good client – not so much a good authoring environment. Keeping in mind that, when the Linux DSC was written, PowerShell didn't exist on Linux so authoring there wasn't possible.